CiteSeerX — Citation Query The Decline of American Political Parties (2022)

Does Attack Advertising Demobilize the Electorate?” The American Political Science Review 88(4

by Author(s) Stephen Ansolabehere, Shanto Iyengar, Adam Simon, Nicholas Valentino, Shanto Iyengar, Adam Simon , 1994

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Abstract - Cited by 42 (1 self) - Add to MetaCart

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at

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Beyond the running tally: Partisan bias in political perceptions

by Larry M. Bartels - Political Behavior

"... I examine the impact of long-term partisan loyalties on perceptions of specific political figures and events. In contrast to the notion of partisanship as a simple “running tally” of political assessments, I show that party identification is a pervasive dynamic force shaping citizens ’ perceptions o ..."

Abstract - Cited by 42 (1 self) - Add to MetaCart

I examine the impact of long-term partisan loyalties on perceptions of specific political figures and events. In contrast to the notion of partisanship as a simple “running tally” of political assessments, I show that party identification is a pervasive dynamic force shaping citizens ’ perceptions of, and reactions to, the political world. My analysis em-ploys panel data to isolate the impact of partisan bias in the context of a Bayesian model of opinion change; I also present more straightforward evidence of contrasts in Democrats ’ and Republicans ’ perceptions of “objective ” politically relevant events. I conclude that partisan bias in political perceptions plays a crucial role in perpetuating and reinforcing sharp differences in opinion between Democrats and Republicans. This conclusion handsomely validates the emphasis placed by the authors of The Amer-ican Voter on “the role of enduring partisan commitments in shaping attitudes toward political objects.” Key words: party identification; Bayesian learning; perceptual bias. The authors of The American Voter built their account of electoral behavior in significant part on “the role of enduring partisan commitments in shaping attitudes toward political objects ” (Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes 1960, p. 135). In the simplest caricature of what has come to be called “the Michigan model, ” partisan loyalties are formed early in life, remain perfectly stable throughout adulthood, and serve as the unmoved movers of more spe-cific political attitudes and behavior. Thus, evidence of reciprocal effects of specific political attitudes on party identification (Franklin and Jackson 1983; Jackson, 1975) and evidence of significant shifts in the aggregate distribution of party identification (MacKuen, Erikson, and Stimson, 1989) have some-times been interpreted as empirical challenges to the Michigan framework. Would-be revisionists have frequently overlooked the fact that Campbell and

(Video) The psychological trick behind getting people to say yes

Personality and politics: Values, traits, and political choice

by Vittorio Caprara, Shalom Schwartz, Cristina Capanna, Michele Vecchione, Claudio Barbaranelli, Gian Vittorio Caprara, Shalom Schwartz, Cristina Capanna, Michele Vecchione, Claudio Barbaranelli - Political Psychology , 2006

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Abstract - Cited by 29 (1 self) - Add to MetaCart

you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at.

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Deep Interactions with MRP ∗ Election Turnout and Voting Patterns Among Small Electoral Subgroups

by Yair Ghitza, Andrew Gelman , 2012

"... Using multilevel regression and poststratification (MRP), we estimate voter turnout and vote choice within deeply interacted subgroups: subsets of the population that are defined by multiple demographic and geographic characteristics. This article lays out the models and statistical procedures we us ..."

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Using multilevel regression and poststratification (MRP), we estimate voter turnout and vote choice within deeply interacted subgroups: subsets of the population that are defined by multiple demographic and geographic characteristics. This article lays out the models and statistical procedures we use, along with the steps required to fit the model for the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections. Though MRP is an increasingly popular method, we improve upon it in numerous ways: deeper levels of covariate interaction, allowing for non-linearity and non-monotonicity, accounting for unequal inclusion probabilities that are conveyed in survey weights, post-estimation adjustments to turnout and voting levels, and informative multidimensional graphical displays as a form of model checking. We use a series of examples to demonstrate the flexibility of our method, including an illustration of turnout and vote choice as subgroups become increasingly detailed, and an analysis of both vote choice changes and turnout changes

(Video) The Office Joke That Cost NBC $60,000

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The magic bullet? The RTAA, institutional reform, and trade liberalization

by Michael J. Hiscox - International Organization , 1999

"... The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA) of 1934 has long been heralded as a simple institutional reform with revolutionary consequences. It is typically por-trayed as a clever maneuver that, by shifting authority over trade policy from Con-gress to the president, fundamentally altered the nature ..."

Abstract - Cited by 9 (0 self) - Add to MetaCart

The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA) of 1934 has long been heralded as a simple institutional reform with revolutionary consequences. It is typically por-trayed as a clever maneuver that, by shifting authority over trade policy from Con-gress to the president, fundamentally altered the nature of the policymaking process

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Party Brands and Partisanship: Theory with Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Argentina

by Noam Lupu, For Their Comments, Advice I Thank Chris Achen, Peter Buisseret, Nick Carnes, Thad Dunning, Grigo Pop-eleches, Marty Gilens, Yon Lupu, Becky Morton, Jonas Pontusson, Markus Prior, Sue Stokes, Dustin Tingley, Josh Tucker, Deborah Yashar, Liz Zechmesiter, Participants Of - American Journal of Political Science

"... Scholars continue to disagree about the nature of individual attachments to parties, viewing partisanship as either exogenous to political events or endogenous to them. Yet these theories are observationally equivalent in the context of stable parties with stable reputations. I develop a branding th ..."

Abstract - Cited by 9 (1 self) - Add to MetaCart

(Video) The Seedy Underbelly Of The American Presidency | Destination: White House | Timeline

Scholars continue to disagree about the nature of individual attachments to parties, viewing partisanship as either exogenous to political events or endogenous to them. Yet these theories are observationally equivalent in the context of stable parties with stable reputations. I develop a branding theory of partisanship in which voters learn about party brands by observing party behavior over time and base their psychological attachment to a party on these brands. I derive the implication of party convergence for partisan attachments and test it using a survey experiment embedded in a 2009 survey of voters in Argentina, a context of unstable party reputations. I find that party convergence weakens partisanship and that this weakening is more pronounced among less-informed and younger individuals, consistent with the model. This evidence suggests that partisanship is neither the stable “unmoved mover ” of exogenous theories nor the performance-based “running tally ” of previous endogenous theories. “There are periods in which the heat of partisan debate slackens and becomes almost perfunctory, and the positions of the

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Who controls? Information and the structure of Legislative Decision Making

by Arthur Lupia, Mathew D. McCubbins , 1994

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Abstract - Cited by 8 (0 self) - Add to MetaCart

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An entropy measure of uncertainty in vote choice.” Electoral Studies 24(3):371–386

by Jeff Gill, Larry Dodd, Bob Huckfeldt, Bob Jackman, Renee Johnson, Gary King, Michael Mar , 2005

"... We examine voters ’ uncertainty as they assess candidates ’ policy positions in the 1994 congressional election and test the hypothesis that the Contract with America reduced voter uncertainty about the issue positions of Republican House candidates. This is done with an aggregate evaluation of issu ..."

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(Video) Why are Americans choosing to quit their jobs in record numbers?

We examine voters ’ uncertainty as they assess candidates ’ policy positions in the 1994 congressional election and test the hypothesis that the Contract with America reduced voter uncertainty about the issue positions of Republican House candidates. This is done with an aggregate evaluation of issue uncertainty and corresponding vote choice where the uncertainty parameterization is derived from an entropy calculation on a set of salient election issues. The primary advantage is that it requires very few assumptions about the nature of the data. The entropic model suggests that voters used the written and explicit Republican agenda as a means of reducing issue uncertainty without substantially increasing time spent evaluating candidate positions.

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The impact of descriptive representation on women’s political engagement: does party matter

by Beth Reingold, Jessica Harrell , 2010

"... Recent research raises doubts about whether the presence of women contesting or occupying prominent public office enhances women’s political engagement. Taking into account both gender and party congruence between politicians and constituents, the authors find that it is primarily female candidates ..."

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Recent research raises doubts about whether the presence of women contesting or occupying prominent public office enhances women’s political engagement. Taking into account both gender and party congruence between politicians and constituents, the authors find that it is primarily female candidates of the same party who enhance women’s inter-est in politics. The stronger impact of party-congruent (over party-incongruent) female candidates can be attributed to either greater visibility or agreement on substantive issues. Party matters, but rather than obscuring the role of gender in electoral politics, it enhances our understanding of how, or under what conditions, it works.

Romancing the GOP: Assessing the strategies used by the Christian Coalition to influence the Republican Party. Party Politics

by Brett M. Clifton

"... Despite the increasing involvement of interest groups and social movement organizations in the American political system over the past few decades, only recently has some attention been given to under-standing how their activities affect political parties. To investigate the relationship between par ..."

Abstract - Cited by 2 (0 self) - Add to MetaCart

(Video) What Started the Cultural Fixation on Gender?

Despite the increasing involvement of interest groups and social movement organizations in the American political system over the past few decades, only recently has some attention been given to under-standing how their activities affect political parties. To investigate the relationship between parties and groups, I examine the interactions between the Christian Coalition and the Republican Party. Relying on 17 interviews with national Republican and Christian Coalition officials, and a mail survey of 423 Republican county chairs, I argue that the Christian Coalition has used electoral mobilization and policy expertise more than financial clout to influence the party. These results have important ramifications for the relationship between groups and political parties. KEY WORDS interest groups/social movements money policy expertise political parties voter mobilization The task of studying social movements and interest groups has been deftly undertaken by numerous political scientists over the past few decades. They have studied group formation, maintenance, influence within the political process and, more recently, their involvement in electoral politics. Scholars have noted that many of these interest groups and social movement organiz-ations seek to influence party nominations, elect favored candidates, influ-ence executive branch appointments, and sway governmental decisions

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What is the meaning of political party? ›

A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals.

What party system is America? ›

Today, America is a multi-party system. The Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the most powerful. Yet other parties, such as the Reform, Libertarian, Socialist, Natural Law, Constitution, and Green Parties can promote candidates in a presidential election.

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Why do we need political parties? ›

Political parties develop policies and programmes and influence public opinion. After political parties win elections, they form governments and execute policies based on the manifestos of the winning parties.

Why are there only two political parties in America? ›

Sachs agreed that there was a link between voting arrangements and the effective number of parties. Sachs explained how the first-past-the-post voting arrangement tended to promote a two-party system: The main reason for America's majoritarian character is the electoral system for Congress.

What is the largest political party in the US? ›

In 2018, the Democratic party was the largest in the United States with roughly 60 million registered members.

Does the US have a Socialist Party? ›

The Socialist Party USA, officially the Socialist Party of the United States of America (SPUSA), is a socialist political party in the United States. SPUSA was founded in 1973 as a successor to the Socialist Party of America, which had split a year prior, resulting in another group called Social Democrats, USA.

What type of party system does the United States have today quizlet? ›

The US has a two-party political system because of two structural features in American politics: single-member districts and winner-take-all elections. Both features encourage the existence of 2 major parties, as smaller parties face great difficulty in winning elective office. You just studied 12 terms!

Is the United States a polyarchy? ›

Robert A. Dahl and Charles E. Lindblom noted that political bargaining is an essential feature of polyarchy, particularly in the US. Moreover, a perceived polyarchy—such as the United States—may bar a substantial number of its citizens from participating in its electoral process.

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