How Your Boss Can Use Your Remote-Work Tools to Spy on You (2022)

In the past, we’ve covered the dos and don’ts of using your work computer for personal business (in short: don’t). But as companies expand their use of remote-work software, there are increasing concerns about what kinds of data bosses can access through such tools. Some of these fears are overblown. But depending on the software your company uses and the type of work you do, some of your activity could be exposed. And privacy concerns aren’t the only worry, as employers are also starting to use the data extracted from these tools to gauge productivity. To what purpose depends on the type of work you do—and whom you do it for.

Employers can see everything you write in email as well as in Slack, Google Workplace, and Microsoft Teams

Let’s get this out of the way: Employers can surveil your conversations in any company-run software. Brian Kropp, chief of research for Gartner’s HR practice, put this bluntly. “Anything that you write on any company messaging platform, your employer has access to,” he said. “Either through IT or HR or someplace, anything you put on those platforms, your employer can look at.” For the most part, Kropp said, it’s impractical for an employer to read all of your messages fishing for gossip or smack talk, though, and not just anyone can go browsing through the data. “Your manager, in the vast majority of situations, does not have access to that communication unless they go through IT or HR, and unless they have a good reason,” he said.

Theoretically an administrator or manager can access messages in an employer-run messaging platform, but the process of doing so depends on the type of plan your employer has, and even then some random manager can’t just search for their name to find out if people are making jokes about them. In fact, we found that the process of getting at those messages was more convoluted than we expected. Here’s how it works for the most common workplace communications suites.

Slack

If your company uses a free or standard plan (you can see which plan your employer uses by clicking the drop-down menu under the name of your company), the administrator needs to request a one-time export from Slack. Companies with a Plus plan need approval to access messages, but once Slack authorizes that feature, your company’s management will retain access to the information. If your company has the Enterprise plan, it can more consistently store and search through messages on Slack.

This access includes use of the Discovery API, which makes it easier to search for and archive messages when required by law, as is common in certain industries like finance and in any public office. Companies with Enterprise plans can use more powerful third-party search tools with an easier-to-search interface.

Aside from viewing actual messages, any Slack user can see high-level usage data on the Analytics tab (head to workspace.slack.com/stats).

Google Workspace

Google Workspace allows administrators to search through specific content across Drive, Gmail, Groups, Chat, Voice, Classic Hangouts, and Meet with the Vault feature. The Vault isn’t included with every subscription but is available to customers of legacy G Suite Business and G Suite Education, Google Workspace Business Plus, Enterprise Standard, Enterprise for Education, and Enterprise Plus. You need to chat with an administrator to see which plan your employer uses. Search works similarly to the function on your own Gmail account and has many options for automation and compliance. Notably, administrators can also search through drafts, even if an email was never sent.

Microsoft Teams

With eDiscovery, Microsoft offers a search tool, similar to Google Workspace’s Vault, that can search through private channels and messages in Teams as well as email, Skype, and more. Privileges to do so are enabled only for the global administrator by default, though, and in most organizations only a legal or compliance team has access. Keyword searches can be automated, both for Teams and for other 365 products. There is no easy way for employees to see on their own what sorts of capabilities an employer account has; you need to speak with an IT administrator for this information.

The smartest approach is to act as if your communications may be monitored

Although it’s usually difficult for a manager to see your private messages and emails, it’s best to take any conversation you wouldn’t want an employer potentially seeing to another venue. Even if you don’t do anything that might cause an employer to look through your messages, they could be involved in a lawsuit that gathers all messages through discovery, which could lead to their being made public. Emails of Enron employees, for example, were collected for lawsuits after the company’s collapse and were used to build spam filters and other language-aware tools. This probably isn’t anyone’s expectation for shop talk and lunch plans. But even if you or the company does nothing wrong, if you leave your job in the middle of a project, for instance, the manager may need to go through your email or messages to figure out what you were working on.

(Video) How Employers Could Be Spying On You While Working From Home

Avoid using any of the software in any suite for personal projects or storage. For example, though it might be tempting to use your work account’s Word or Google Docs to write up a resume, it’s best to use other software. For one thing, theoretically a company could have a keyword search for “resume” to look for flight-risk employees. More practically, if you leave the company, you would lose access to that file.

Can your employer gauge your productivity using Google Workspace and Microsoft 365?

How Your Boss Can Use Your Remote-Work Tools to Spy on You (1)

In several of their plans, Google and Microsoft each offer ways for administrators to track usage and metadata from users. Such data includes what time you sign on, how many messages you send, how many calls you join, or what devices you use.

The services can also turn the data into measurements. In Google Workspace, this feature is called Work Insights, and in Microsoft 365 it’s Workplace Analytics (there’s also a personal version that managers can’t see called MyAnalytics). In addition, Microsoft Teams has a user-activity report that offers more detailed usage information for administrators.

These tools display aggregate data about how teams use the apps included in their respective suites—details such as how much time a team spends in specific apps, or collaboration trends based on who has accessed shared documents. Microsoft recently received criticism for allowing managers to drill down to a specific user to look at their usage, but it has since removed the option to do so. Some Google and Microsoft 365 plans also support third-party tools, such as Prodoscore, which “tracks the activities of each employee and calculates a productivity score based on their activity levels.”

“In my opinion, the main risk with Microsoft 365 isn’t the data it’s collecting now, but the kind of workplace culture and expectations it will create,” said Bennett Cyphers, staff technologist at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. “Microsoft Office products are the perfect Trojan horse for this kind of workplace—they are the ultimate mundane office tools, used by everyone and feared by no one.”

“I worry that managers will get used to the data that 365 offers, and start asking for more,” Cyphers said. “On the flip side, workers will get used to the expectation that every action they take is being tracked and logged, and they will find it harder to fight back as the surveillance becomes more individualized and intrusive.”

Know what kinds of data your manager is collecting, and how your workplace might use it

If you feel comfortable doing so, ask your manager or HR department for details about how (or if) they get these reports. For now, most people on small teams don’t need to worry about this topic, but it’s possible for the situation to change in the future.

More-intrusive “bossware” takes things a step further

As COVID-19’s spread has prompted an expansion of work-from-home policies across various industries, the use of more-pervasive monitoring software, also known as “tattleware” or “bossware,” has increased. The New York Times demonstrated how this software works, but the idea is simple: Once the software is installed, an employer has deeper access and even live monitoring tools for everything you do on your computer, including which applications you open, what websites you visit, and how much time you spend doing different activities. Employers can use this data to track your attendance or periodically snap screenshots of your screen. Some software can even monitor the music you listen to, your facial expressions, your tone of voice, or your writing tone throughout the day. If all of this sounds a little familiar—and unsettling—that’s because it’s nearly identical to the behavior of stalkerware.

Gartner’s Brian Kropp noted that before the pandemic around 10% of companies the firm had surveyed said they used this type of software. “But since the start of the pandemic,” Kropp said, “about 30% of companies have purchased something like that to track employees as they work remote.” Kropp added that even in this situation, the software doesn’t give a manager access to, say, one picture that a person took at a certain point in the day. But it does often provide an aggregate analysis of an employee. For example, the bossware might say, “Thorin is not in front of his camera as often as he usually is. He’s spending 35% of his time on Twitter and 20% of his time in Google Docs.”

(Video) How employers monitor employees working remotely

Many people do not consider that their every action may be recorded and possibly scrutinized months or even years in the future. As the EFF’s Bennett Cyphers noted, on a mundane level, the surveillance potential—especially for software that records your screen throughout the day—is unnerving. “I would feel uncomfortable if someone was looking over my shoulder as I compose every email that I wrote,” he said. Imagine if your boss had access to your boring daily processes, where you may delete and rewrite an email, say, or correct a minor mistake before anyone else notices.

Kropp suggested that though some employers are collecting a lot of data, turning that into useful knowledge is still difficult: “Does that improve performance? Does that improve engagement? We’re not yet there with a lot of these technologies.” A data dashboard might reveal the tasks someone is doing, but it can’t suss out why the employee was doing those things at that time, such as taking a mental break or doing research for a project. The process is not all that different from how companies collect customer behavior and buying patterns for years to track them and sell them more stuff; in a way, monitoring software is an attempt to flip that same tech inward to track employees with the goal of improving performance.

There’s also evidence that bossware doesn’t work that well. It stifles the creativity and camaraderie of an office, which is already particularly hard to maintain through a remote-work arrangement. Without the freedom to make mistakes and take time to think about things, it’s harder for people to get work done. “It really exacerbates power imbalances in the workplace,” Cyphers said. “If you’re not on 100% good trusting terms with everyone above you, then this is going to make you feel really uncomfortable.”

If your company requires this type of software, you’re stuck with it

Although such software may feel intrusive, it is legal, and in some cases, your employer doesn’t need to tell you it’s running on an employer-issued computer. The EFF has a chart detailing which software has which features, if you’re interested. If this type of software is installed on your computer, avoid using that computer for anything personal, no matter how mundane that thing may seem. If an employer asks to install monitoring software on your personal device, ask for a work-provided device, if you can.

VPNs and remote-desktop software have the same web-browsing monitoring as at a physical office

If you access your work computer through remote-desktop software such as Citrix, Splashtop, or TeamViewer, everything you do within the window of that application happens on the computer in your office. This means the IT department or company managers also have the same sort of computer access they have at a physical office. For most people, that means monitoring your internet browsing activity, but typically it also means they can see any files you’ve stored or documents you’re working on.

If you’re required to connect to a VPN, you’re funneling your entire internet connection through your work computer, but not anything else you do. In most cases, this means an employer can see high-level data about what websites you visit.

For remote desktops especially, treat them the same as you would if you were sitting at a desk in an office

If you’re required to use a VPN to connect to your office network, use the internet just as you would at your office computer. In both cases, avoid web browsing you wouldn’t want your employer to be privy to.

Didn’t I hear something about Zoom spying on me?

How Your Boss Can Use Your Remote-Work Tools to Spy on You (2)

In early 2020, Zoom got some flack for features such as “attendee attention tracking” and the fact that some private messages were showing up in recordings. Both of those issues are fixed.

An administrator can still see some details of your Zoom usage, such as any recordings you’ve saved to the cloud, meeting names, and meeting participants. That can include people outside the company for any call you host on your work Zoom account, but not calls you join; for example, the Wirecutter administrator knows that I hosted a call in March and who was in that call. Admins for Google Meet and Microsoft’s Skype can get similar information.

(Video) Your boss is spying on you

Create a free personal account or use a different service altogether for personal calls. If you want to record a Zoom meeting, save it locally, to your computer.

The larger risks to privacy

The data generated from what a worker does throughout the day, whether it’s anonymized or not, represents a privacy concern, and it’s easy to imagine scenarios in which an employer might use that data impractically or unethically. Since bossware can take periodic screenshots or record video—sometimes without an employee knowing—the software may incidentally pick up all sorts of sensitive information, such as medical or banking information. Tools like CleverControl, InterGuard, and Teramind can collect everything from geolocation data to social media posts to instant messages. If the software uses machine learning to generate productivity reports, there are worries that any algorithmic recommendations stemming from it may reinforce social, gender, or racial inequalities because of biased training data. And smaller employers reliant on professional judgement may lack a wall between a middle manager with ill intent and the administrator with the keys to the communication tools.

There are certainly some jobs that require monitoring for security, compliance, financial, or intellectual-property purposes. Even then, employers can acquire bespoke tools, at a better price, that are easier to target at the information they need. One example Cyphers suggested: “If you’re trying to monitor how people access sensitive health information, then you can build a tool that only does that. And that will only alert the boss if there’s a suspected violation. It doesn’t have to monitor everything that someone does on their device and become a productivity monitoring tool in addition.”

Ideally, an employer will always make clear what data it has access to, how long the retention period is, and under what circumstances the employer would ever go through the trouble of looking at any data it collects. If you don’t have that information as an employee, it’s worthwhile to ask your employer for more details about its practices.

Mentioned above

  • If you use video-conferencing software for business, you should be using Zoom. Want to hang out with family or friends? Look to Google Meet and Whereby.The Best Video-Conferencing Service

Further reading

  • Our Favorite Ad Blockers and Browser Extensions to Protect Privacy

    by Thorin Klosowski

    (Video) How Employers Could Be Spying On You While Working From Home

    These free, easy-to-install browser extensions are simple add-ons that can help block ads, reduce tracking, and improve your privacy online.

  • 16 Practical Privacy Tips for Your iPhone

    by Thorin Klosowski

    With a few easy changes to the privacy and security settings, you can control how much information your iPhone—and your apps—collects and uses.

  • 11 Practical Privacy Tips for Your Android Phone

    by Thorin Klosowski

    With a few easy changes to the privacy and security settings, you can control how much information Android and Google—and the apps you use—collect about you.

  • (Video) Tools your boss can use to track your activities while working from home

    Looking Back on a Year of Apple’s Privacy Labels and Tracking

    by Thorin Klosowski

    A year after Apple instituted new privacy features for ad tracking on its devices, we look at what’s changed, and what’s mostly stayed the same.

FAQs

What software is used to spy on employees? ›

Compare Our Best Picks
Employee monitoring softwareEditor's scoreBest use case
Teramind86/100Security threat protection
InterGuard91/100Remote workers
ActivTrak90/100Employee analytics
Veriato86/100Employee retention
6 more rows
22 Sept 2022

Can employers use teams to spy on employees? ›

Yes, Microsoft Teams (MS Teams) can help employers monitor employees. As a manager, you can track almost everything your employee does within Teams. This includes text conversations, recorded calls, Zoom meetings, and more. Now, this opens you up to more questions.

Can my employer see my remote desktop? ›

Can my employer monitor my Citrix, Terminal, and Remote Desktop sessions? A: YES, your employer can and has the right to monitor your Citrix, Terminal, and Remote Desktop sessions. We mean to say, your employer can monitor what is going on within the session itself and not on the device where the session is executed.

What is an example of a software tool that is used for employee monitoring? ›

The best employee monitoring software of 2022 in full
  • SentryPC. Great employee monitoring software with comprehensive monitoring features. ...
  • iMonitorSoft. All-in-one computer activities monitoring software. ...
  • InterGuard. This software enables employee monitoring and control. ...
  • Veriato. ...
  • Work Examiner. ...
  • Hubstaff.
5 days ago

How do I know if my employer is spying on me? ›

Additionally, check your contract to see if your employer mentioned monitoring or tracking software anywhere. The presence of such a clause confirms that your employer has installed some sort of a monitoring program on your computer. Other than that, there's really no sure way to tell if your boss is spying on you.

How do employers track remote workers? ›

Listening through your microphone, keystroke logging software. So, recording what you're typing at any given time, what websites you're going to, who you're communicating with.” This software may be installed on employees' work laptops, phones or tablets without their knowledge.

Can my boss watch me on camera all day? ›

Conclusion: Your Boss Can Legally Monitor Any Activity on a Work Computer or A Work Network. As you now know, your boss can monitor almost anything you do during the day - whether you're working remotely or have returned to the office.

Can your employer spy on you through laptop camera? ›

Employers can legally monitor almost anything an employee does at work as long as the reason for monitoring is important enough to the business. Employers may install video cameras, read postal mail and e-mail, monitor phone and computer usage, use GPS tracking, and more.

How can I tell if my work PC is being monitored? ›

Right-click on the Taskbar and select Task Manager. On the Process tab, find a program that potentially monitoring the computer. You might want to check out a top monitoring software to help you determine the name. If you found one exact same name, it means you are being monitored.

Can employers watch you on camera? ›

While it will be legitimate for employers to monitor and test their network for cyber security reasons, if employers do not tell their staff that they are using productivity tracking systems, they are basically breaking the law.

Can your employer spy on you at home? ›

Is it legal to monitor remote employees in California? In California, employers can face criminal penalties for eavesdropping or recording their employees' private communications via telephone or email unless all parties to the communication consent to the monitoring (California Penal Code § 631).

Can employers monitor personal devices? ›

Although there are privacy laws to protect your rights, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1998 actually makes it legal for businesses to monitor their employees' devices to protect the company's business interests.

How do you trick time tracking software? ›

Most Common Ways Employees Can Trick Time Tracking Software
  1. Automating Mouse Movement. ...
  2. Using a Window as a Red Herring. ...
  3. A Second Monitor. ...
  4. Disabling the Software. ...
  5. Predicting Time for Screenshots. ...
  6. Remote Access. ...
  7. Using a Virtual Machine.
7 Jul 2022

Is employee monitoring software legal? ›

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is a federal law that allows employers to monitor their employees' verbal and written communications under certain circumstances. Some state laws regulate this activity.

What is remote employee monitoring software? ›

Hubstaff is a remote employee monitoring software that combines screenshots, time tracking, and automated reporting to make working from home simpler (and with more accountability for employees). It also measures activity related to keyboard and mouse usage, so you can tell whether your employees are truly working.

How do companies spy on their employees? ›

Spying on employees' mobile devices. Complete communication logs. VOIP calls spying. Internet monitoring.

Can my employer track my laptop activity? ›

Technically, an employer can't monitor you on a personal device without your knowledge. “As a practical matter, the employer is going to have to go through you in order to install any monitoring software,” Scherer said.

Can your work listen to your conversations? ›

Generally, employers are not allowed to listen to or record conversations of their employees without the consent of the parties involved. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) allows employers to listen in on business calls, but are not allowed to record or listen to private conversations.

How do I monitor remote employees? ›

7 Ways to Monitor Employees Working from Home
  1. Track employee email activity.
  2. Implement time tracking software.
  3. Use a project / task management app.
  4. Create task lists.
  5. Require self-reporting.
  6. Require managerial supervision and reports.
  7. Observe subjective factors.

Can my employer track my activity if I am not connected to their VPN? ›

Because You Have A VPN

A holistic protection from employers monitoring your personal computer or phone is by using a VPN or Virtual Private Network. A VPN basically works like a mask – your employer won't be able to see you so they can't see what you are doing on your personal computer.

Can my employer track my IP address? ›

Yes, it is possible that your boss (or whomever) is watching you. Using your IP address (a series of numbers with dots), someone can easily trace your location while you're logging in from out of office.

How do you know if you are under surveillance? ›

The best way to determine if you're under physical surveillance is to always remain aware of your surroundings. Look for anyone loitering, especially in a car or van. Try adjusting your direction to test the person's reaction time. People tend not to pay much attention to others when they're out and about.

How can you detect a hidden camera? ›

7 Ways to Spot Hidden Cameras
  1. Look for Odd Objects. It's a good practice to thoroughly scan your surroundings whenever you enter a new room. ...
  2. Use a Flashlight. ...
  3. Use Your Smartphone Camera. ...
  4. Scan the Wi-Fi Network. ...
  5. Use a Phone Call to Detect Interference. ...
  6. Use a Hidden Camera Detector App. ...
  7. Use a Specialized RF Detector.
13 Jul 2022

Why is my boss checking up on me? ›

They check in with you

If your manager checks on you from time to time, but not excessively, it's likely they enjoy interacting with you and want to make sure you're okay. They are probably checking in to make it clear they want to support you as you work.

Can my employer see what websites I visit on home Wi-Fi? ›

No. They cannot see what you are doing. Did you install any piece of software provided by your employer onto your own device or did you have to make any specific settings on your own device in order to use your employer's wifi?

Is it legal to have cameras with audio in the workplace? ›

Using Audio Recordings in the Workplace

Most states have wiretapping laws prohibiting employers from monitoring or recording certain employee communications. If your employer uses video cameras that can record audio, they might risk violating your state wiretapping laws or the federal wiretapping laws mentioned above.

How do I stop my employer from tracking my phone? ›

How to Stop Employer from Tracking Your Phone [Hot]
  1. #1: Use A Location Spoofer to Stop Employer from Tracking Phone Location.
  2. #2: Use A VPN to Stop Employer from Tracking Your Phone.
  3. #3: Use A Privacy Browser on Your Phone to Stop Employer Tracking Internet.
27 Jul 2020

Can my employer see my Google search history? ›

If you were signed into the work Google account when browsing those things & your company uses Google Business then yes they can see what you were browsing when logged in as with the Google business dashboard you can access that data.

How do companies spy on their employees? ›

Spying on employees' mobile devices. Complete communication logs. VOIP calls spying. Internet monitoring.

How can I tell if my computer is being monitored at work 2022? ›

Open task manager by right-clicking on the taskbar and choosing Task Manager. If there's a suspicious process, that's the monitoring app. Question: Can my company see what I do on my computer? Answer: Your company can see your device activities and track them if they provide you with that computer.

Is employee monitoring software legal? ›

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is a federal law that allows employers to monitor their employees' verbal and written communications under certain circumstances. Some state laws regulate this activity.

How can I spy on my employees computer? ›

4 Ways To Monitor Your Employees Legally And Effectively
  1. Monitor Your Employees' Computer Activity With CleverControl.
  2. Monitor Your Employees' Phone Conversation.
  3. Monitor Your Employees' Location.
  4. Control Your Employees' Activity Without Any Software or App.
  5. Conclusion: Employee Monitoring Means Better Productivity.
17 Sept 2019

Can my boss watch me on camera all day? ›

Employers can legally monitor almost anything an employee does at work as long as the reason for monitoring is important enough to the business. Employers may install video cameras, read postal mail and e-mail, monitor phone and computer usage, use GPS tracking, and more.

Can your employer spy on you through laptop camera? ›

As we noted earlier, privacy protections can be situational. If your employer can show they have a valid reason to monitor your computer, you'll be hard-pressed to prevent them from doing so. However, in reality, most employers won't have to 'fight' to access your computer.

Can employers monitor personal devices? ›

Although there are privacy laws to protect your rights, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1998 actually makes it legal for businesses to monitor their employees' devices to protect the company's business interests.

Can your employer spy on you at home? ›

Is it legal to monitor remote employees in California? In California, employers can face criminal penalties for eavesdropping or recording their employees' private communications via telephone or email unless all parties to the communication consent to the monitoring (California Penal Code § 631).

Can my employer see what websites I visit on home Wi-Fi? ›

No. They cannot see what you are doing. Did you install any piece of software provided by your employer onto your own device or did you have to make any specific settings on your own device in order to use your employer's wifi?

Can my employer track my activity if I am not connected to their VPN? ›

Because You Have A VPN

A holistic protection from employers monitoring your personal computer or phone is by using a VPN or Virtual Private Network. A VPN basically works like a mask – your employer won't be able to see you so they can't see what you are doing on your personal computer.

Is it OK to watch your employees on camera? ›

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRB) prohibits employers' use of video cameras to monitor employees' union activities, including union meetings and conversations involving union matters.

Can security cameras be used to spy on employees? ›

It is illegal to monitor employees without their knowledge and consent in California (though federal law does not require employers to inform workers they are being recorded). Employers are required to tell all people who are being recorded the extent and duration of the recording.

Is my computer being monitored? ›

How to Check If Your Computer Is Being Monitored
  • Look for Suspicious Processes. Suspicious processes may indicate that your computer is being monitored. ...
  • Run Antivirus Software. Antivirus software can reveal whether or not your computer is being monitored. ...
  • Evaluate Ports. Another tip is to evaluate your network's ports.
16 Feb 2021

How common is employee monitoring software? ›

Employers also want to confirm employees are working a full day (65%), and ensure they aren't using work equipment for personal use (50%). Employers are primarily tracking their employees' habits by using software that monitors web browsing and application use (76%).

Can my employer track my keystrokes? ›

Monitoring programs can track the websites workers are on, apps they're using and their email and social media activity. Some programs allow managers not just to count keystrokes but to read what's typed and record conversations and video, using a computer's microphone and web camera.

How do you trick time tracking software? ›

Most Common Ways Employees Can Trick Time Tracking Software
  1. Automating Mouse Movement. ...
  2. Using a Window as a Red Herring. ...
  3. A Second Monitor. ...
  4. Disabling the Software. ...
  5. Predicting Time for Screenshots. ...
  6. Remote Access. ...
  7. Using a Virtual Machine.
7 Jul 2022

Videos

1. Creepy Ways Your Company Can Spy on You as You Work From Home
(Veuer)
2. ‘Tattleware’: How Your Boss Might Be Tracking Your Remote Activity
(TODAY)
3. Can your BOSS see what you do when you WORK FROM HOME
(Cloud Context)
4. Here's how your boss may be spying on you
(CNBC Television)
5. How bosses are spying on employees as they work from home | 7NEWS
(7NEWS Australia)
6. Is a new Microsoft software spying on you for your employer?
(Victoria Pelletier)

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